Aim: To examine the effect of condensation pressure on surface hardness, microstructure and compressive strength of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Methodology White ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN, USA) was mixed and packed into cylindrical polycarbonate tubes. Six groups each of 10 specimens were subjected to pressures of 0.06, 0.44, 1.68, 3.22, 4.46 and 8.88 MPa respectively. The surface hardness of each specimen was measured using Vickers microhardness. Cylindrical specimens of 4 mm in diameter and 6 mmin height were prepared in polycarbonate cylindrical moulds for testing the compressive strength. Five groups of 10 specimens were prepared using pressures of 0.06, 0.44, 1.68, 3.22 or 4.46 MPa. Data were subjected to one-way anova. The microstructure was analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) after sectioning specimens with a scalpel.